Care Credit

Heidi Johnson, OD, FCOVD, is a neuro-developmental optometrist, certified in visual development and the diagnosis and treatment of brain based vision problems through vision therapy.  We ultimately see with our visual brain and while anyone can suffer from brain based vision problems, developing children and brain injured patients particularly benefit from our treatment specialties including:

1.     Binocular vision problems such as convergence insufficiency, strabismus and amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

2.     Visually related learning problems such as oculomotor dysfunctions as well as visual processing and perceptual issues

3.     Visual Integrative disorders such as visual motor, visual vestibular or visual cognitive 

4.     Rehabilitative optometry for vision problems after stroke or traumatic brain injury

Dr. Johnson oversees the specialized therapy programs delivered by a licensed Occupational Therapist, Chris Erbisch, MS, OTR/L who has over 20 years of treatment experience with neurologically and physically impaired.  Combining the occupational therapy background and visual therapy techniques creates a complimentary program. Since joining the practice, Chris engaged in extensive training through the Optometric Extension Program (OEP) on Vision Therapy for Visual Dysfunctions, Strabismus & Amblyopia, and Learning Related Visual Problems.  We also employ a Certified Teacher, Marjean Bartelli, in our therapy department and encourage relationships with the education structure. This benefits our learning related visual disorder patients.

Vision Therapy is a progressive program of visual activities, prescribed and performed under doctor supervision, designed to improve visual skills and abilities for visual comfort, efficiency and improvement in processing and interpreting visual information.

Vision Therapy also provides an opportunity for the visual system to accurately direct action, whether for writing, sports or
driving a car.

The National Eye Institute studied the effectiveness of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency a binocular problem affecting reading and attention and found office based vision therapy to be the most effective treatment.

Convergence Insufficiency

Vision therapy is sometimes referred to as Visual Therapy, Vision Training, or Orthoptics.It is individualized for the diagnosis and visual needs and goals of each patient.

It is an effective treatment for conditions such as:

  • Oulomotor Dysfunction- Eye tracking
  • Accommodative Dysfunction- maintaining and adjusting focus
  • Binocular Dysfunction including

  • Convergence Insufficiency-eye teaming

  • Strabismus and Amblyopia-Lazy Eye

  • Visual Motor Delays- eye hand coordination

  • Sensory Integration problems- integrate the sight information with all our other senses: touch, hearing, taste, smell and balance

  • Visual Perception problems- visual discrimination, memory, spatial relations or directionality, form perception, figure ground and others.


These conditions are significant contributors to reading and learning problems, writing difficulties, headaches, double vision, attention problems, poor coordination, and behavior problems.

Vision Therapy is not just "Eye Exercise". Unlike other forms of exercise, the goal of Vision Therapy is not to strengthen eye muscles. Your eye muscles are already incredibly strong! Vision Therapy should not be confused with any self-directed program of eye exercises, which is or has been marketed to the public. Vision Therapy is supervised by vision care professionals and utilizes many types of specialized and/ or medical equipment such as:

- Therapeutic lenses (regulated medical devices)
- Prisms (regulated medical devices)
- Occluders, Patches and Filters
- Balance boards, rails and mini trampolines
- Electronic targets with timing mechanisms
- Projected targets and spatial localizing devices
- Computer software

Vision therapy in our office typically involves weekly 50 minute in-office therapy sessions supplemented by 15-20 minutes of home activities daily. Progress is evaluated every 8 sessions.

The first step in any Vision Therapy program is a comprehensive vision examination. Following a thorough evaluation, a qualified vision care professional can advise you as to whether you are a good candidate for Vision Therapy and/or whether Vision Therapy is appropriate treatment for you. If Vision Therapy has been recommended by your local Optometrist, your primary exam information can be forwarded to the Superior Vision Therapy office (fax 906-228-3685). Dr. Johnson can then determine if further Sensorimotor or Visual Information Processing testing is needed prior to starting therapy. Your local optometrist will remain your primary eyecare provider for any lens changes needed. Dr. Johnson will communicate your progress with you local provider and once therapy is completed, you will be released back to their care.

Visual Rehabilitation addresses the visual consequences of head injuries, stroke, brain surgery or other neurological conditions. Visual symptoms may include double vision, light sensativity, focus problems, peripheral vision problems, spatial perception, eye-hand coordination or visual processing and perception concerns (deriving meaning through your vision). Treatment may involve prescribing specialty lenses utilizing prisms, low vision devices or vision therapy.

As our fourth Service, Sports Vision Training is done to enhance visual skills for high level directing action and spatial processing.

Links to more information about Vision Therapy >>

What is Vision Therapy?
Various definitions of Vision Therapy by American Optometric Association, eye doctors, and patient advocates.

Learning Related Vision Problems
a selection of articles and resources specifically related to learning disabilities, dyslexia, reading problems.

Vision Therapy FAQs
An eye doctor answers frequently asked questions about Vision Therapy in an interview.

Attention Deficit Disorder and Vision
Is it really ADD/ADHD? Or is it an undetected vision problem?

About Children's Vision
A large web site with many pages of easy-to-understand information on lazy eye, crossed-eyes (strabismus), eye muscle surgery, binocular vision impairments, and much more.

What is a Complete Eye Exam?
It is not enough to test the clarity of eyesight at a distance of 20 feet (known as 20/20). A complete eye examination needs to test many aspects of vision.

All About Crossed Eyes
A comprehensive site on the medical condition called strabismus (eye turns, wandering eye, deviating eyes, crossed eyes, etc). This site was written by an expert on all types of strabismus and their recommended treatments.

Tracking Problems and Reading Difficulties
Article by an eye doctor explains how and why tracking problems interfere with reading skills. See the illustrations!

Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Problems
This article by an eye doctor explains how and why convergence insufficiency causes problems with reading and learning. See the illustrations!

Binocular Vision
How does it work? Why do we need it?

Eye Doctors and 3D Vision
Eye doctors use stereoscopic 3D images to develop and reinforce 3D vision and depth perception.

Choosing an Eye Doctor
Comments by educators on choosing pediatric vision care for a child.

Going Binocular- Susan's First Snowfall
NPR Article:

Click on the following links to read about some of the studies
conducted on Vision Therapy:

Convergence Insufficiency

Learning Resource Bibliography:

Professional Resources

Scheiman, Mitchell, Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision Problems, Mosby, Inc, St. Louis, MO, 1994

Scheiman, Mitchell, Clinical Management of Binocular Vision: Heterophoric, Accommodative and Eye Movement Disorders, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2002

Griffin, John, Binocular Anomalies, Procedures for Vision Therapy, Professional Press, Chicago, IL, 1982

Press, Leonard, Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy, Mosby, Inc, St. Louis, MO, 1997

Caloroso, Elizabeth, Rouse, Michael, Clinical Management of Strabismus, Butterworth, Heinemann, Newton, MA, 1993

von Noorden, Gunter, Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility:ed 4, Mosby, Inc, St. Louis, MO, 1990

Trobe, Jonathan, The Neurology of Vision, Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY, 2001

Zolton, Barbara, Vision, Perception and Cognition: A manual for the evaluation and treatment of the neurologically impaired adult, Slack, Inc, Thorofare, NJ, 1996

Melillo, Robert, Leisman, Gerry, Neurobehavioral Disorders of Childhood: an Evolutionary Perspective, Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, 2004

Kaplan, Melvin, Seeing Through New Eyes; changing the lives of children with autism, asperger syndrome, and other developmental disabilities through vision therapy, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Philadelphia, PA, 2006

McGraw, Lora, Guiding Strabismus Therapy, Vision Extension, Santa Ana, CA, 1991

Pepper, Robert, Nordgren, Mary Jane, Stress-Point Learning: A multi-sensory approach to processing information, Optometric extension Program, Santa Ana, CA, 2006

Allied Professionals

Ashley, Mark, Krych, David, Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation, Morton, chapter 7, Visual Dysfunction Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Suter, chapter 8, Rehabilitation and Management of Visual Dysfunction Following TBI, Optometric Extension Program, Santa Ana, CA

Scheiman, Mitchell, Understanding and Managing Vision Deficits: A Guide for Occupational Therapists, Slack, Inc., Thorofare, NJ, 2002

Sunbeck, Deborah, Infinity Walk: Preparing your mind to learn!, Jalmar Press, Torrance, CA, 1996

Dennison, Paul, Dennison Gail, Brain Gym: Teacher’s Edition Revised, Edu-Kinesthetics, Ventura, CA, 1989

Development Resources

S.A Goddard, Reflexes, Learning and Behavior, Fern Ridge Press, Eugene, Oreg., 2002

S.A Goddard, The Well Balanced Child, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, GLS, 1BJ, UK, 2004

Strokes, Beverly, Amazing Babies: Essential Movement for Your Baby in the First Year, Move Alive Media Inc, ON, M4T, 1P5, 2002

Glasser, William, Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, HarperCollins, New York, New York, 1998

Getman, G.N., How to Develop your Child’s Intelligence: More Successful Adulthood by Providing more Adequate Childhood, OEP, Santa Ana,
CA, 1993

Eide, Brock, Eide Fernette, The Mislabled Child: How Understanding Your Child’s Unique Learning Style Can Open the Door to Success, Hyperion, New York, NY, 2006

Cook, David, When Your Child Struggles: The Myths of 20/20 Vision and What Every Parent Needs to Know, InVision Press, Atlanta, GA, 1992


DR. Heidi Johnson, OD, FCOVD.

Dr. Johnson is a Neuro-Developmental Optometrist specializing in brain based vision problems such as lazy eye, visually related learning problems and rehabilitative vision therapy after brain injury.

Learn More>

Vision Therapy Staff:  Marjean, Dr. Heidi Johnson and Chris
Meet Chris Erbisch, MS, OTR/L

Welcome Chris





Chris is our Vision Therapy Director and Certified Occupational Therapist.
Learn More>


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2822 Venture Drive
Marquette, MI, 49855
Phone: 906-228-4401
Fax: 906-225-0460

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